About Power Macintosh Interrupt Management
Both the 68K and PowerPC microprocessors can be run in two modes: user and supervisor. The Mac OS runs in supervisor mode on both 68K and PowerPC Macintoshes. On 68K Macintoshes, the Mac OS allows any code to access supervisor mode. All code, therefore, has access to the status register, which can be used to program interrupts. With the introduction of the PowerPC, the Mac OS enforced the lock between the PowerPC user and supervisor modes. As a result, the PowerPC status register is no longer available for working with interrupts. To compound the interrupt problem, the 68K microprocessor has seven levels of available interrupts while the RISC- based PowerPC only has one interrupt level, requiring a different interrupt model.
Porting 68K Interrupt Code to PowerPC
All code dealing with 68K interrupts (seven levels) is emulated on the PowerPC, since there is no transformation from seven levels to one. The mechanism for dealing with 68K code on PowerPC is the 68LC040 emulator. Therefore, developers may choose not to port at all and can be assured that their 68K interrupt code will run on the PowerPC.
For those few who choose to port parts of 68K 'DRVR'driver to a native PowerPC code, 68K non-interrupt code can be ported, but the interrupt handling code must remain emulated because a native interrupt handler would not be able to access the PowerPC status register to block interrupts. If you were to use any PowerPC assembly language instructions dealing with that status register, you would cause a fatal supervisory exception. By leaving the interrupt handler as 68K code, that code could continue to "access" the 68K status register because the emulator provides these services to drivers. The native portions of these drivers will have to use UPPs to interface correctly with the 68K Device Manager. Even though the PowerPC code will have to go through a mixed mode switch for interrupt handling, the developer may choose to go this way because the bulk of the remaining code is PowerPC and could increase performance. This Note, however, does not address the details of using the Mixed Mode Manager.
See Inside Macintosh: PowerPC System Software for using 68K code with PowerPC code via the Mixed Mode Manager.
PCI-Based Power Macintosh Interrupt Management
With the introduction of the 9500 Power Macintosh, Apple has replaced its NuBus I/O model with the PCI I/O model and defined a new interrupt management scheme. This scheme is explained in detail in Designing PCI Cards and Drivers for Power Macintosh Computers, Chapter 9, Driver Services Library (DSL).
In this new I/O model, there are multiple levels of executions, including application, secondary, and primary execution levels that replace the old method of using interrupts to protect data. The primary and secondary execution levels are specifically for drivers and cannot use Toolbox services. Note that not a single Toolbox Manager is available. The services supplied at these primary and secondary levels via the Driver Services Library (DSL) include interrupt services. Other services, which replace the need to turn off interrupts that protect your data, include:
There are limitations placed on the execution context for some of these services. If you're an application developer, this means that some of these services - including interrupts - are off limits to your application. For the PCI driver writer, it means that these services, which exclude the Toolbox, are now your domain.
Again, there is no way to turn off the one and only interrupt on the PowerPC. If you are writing a driver, you may need to deal with a hardware-generated interrupts, assuming your device generates one. For example, a video driver may not generate one while a network driver most likely would. Also, there are new mechanisms and assumptions on how to deal with hardware generated interrupts.
The following example is one type of transactions between an application and a 'ndrv' driver. There are other transactions at present and there will be more types defined with future releases of the Mac OS.
An Example - A Simple Read Transaction
Consider the following scenario. A PCI card in an expansion slot is capable of asynchronously reading data from an external source into the Macintosh main memory. This basic sample will describe this read transaction and what must be done to service the device generated interrupt. But there is an important caveat here. The driver in this example is a generic PCI driver of type 'ndrv', as defined in Designing PCI Cards and Drivers for Power Macintosh Computers.
By choosing to write this kind of driver and following all of the guidelines in the above manual, you guarantee compatibility with future releases of the MacOS.
When the driver is loaded into memory by the Mac
OS, the driver installs its interrupt routines and
data in the Interrupt Source Tree (IST). It does so
by using the Driver Services Library (DSL) routine
At some point, code running at the task level
makes a PBRead asynchronous call to the driver via
the Device Manager using a data structure called an
The Device Manager makes a call to
The ISR is allowed to complete its function
uninterrupted, which is why an ISR must make every
effort to spend as little time as possible
servicing its device at the primary interrupt
level. The driver should then queue a secondary
interrupt handler to do any remaining work to
service the device and/or the data using the DSL
Returning Control to the Mac OS
Having completed those tasks, the ISR returns
control to the Mac OS. Secondary interrupt handlers
are run before control is returned to task level
code but can still be preempted by other primary
interrupt handlers. By using the secondary
interrupt handler to complete non-device-related
tasks belonging to the read transaction, the driver
writer is not locking out other code and is
behaving appropriately in a multitasking
environment. The secondary interrupt handler
finishes any remaining tasks if they exist and
makes a call to
And the point of this example? Interrupts are not available to applications, but there are ways for applications and interrupt handlers to exchange information.
The PowerPC interrupt is not available to an application. Until the next major release of the Mac OS, you can use the emulated 68K interrupt mechanism. Using the interrupt on the PowerPC is not an option and would be catastrophic if attempted. Interrupts from expansion devices, however, are fully supported in PowerPC for both NuBus and PCI slots. For more information about how to manage expansion interrupts on the PowerPC with PCI, refer to Designing PCI Cards and Drivers for Power Macintosh Computers.
Designing PCI Cards and Drivers for Power Macintosh Computers.
PowerPC 601 RISC microprocessor User's Manual MPC601UM/AD.
M68000 8-/16-/32-Bit microprocessors User's Manual, Sixth Edition, M68000UM/AD Rev 5.
Inside Macintosh: PowerPC System Software, Addison-Wesley.
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